The Corps in New England has completed seven navigation projects in Vermont, all on Lake Champlain or associated waterways. These projects have, over the years, benefited commercial interests and the many recreational boaters that enjoy Lake Champlain and its environs. (Five additional projects have been constructed on the New York side of Lake Champlain.)
After the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain is the largest freshwater lake in the United States. It has a length of 120 miles, a width of 12 miles at its widest crossing, and a mean depth of 64 feet, with some areas as deep as 400 feet. Except for a few shoal areas, the entire lake is navigable. Lake Champlain has a total area of 90 square miles - 435 square miles of surface water and 55 square miles of islands, of which there are over 70. Approximately 91 percent of water entering Lake Champlain is from tributaries. Unlike most waterways in the United States, Lake Champlain flows northerly, and empties into the Richelieu River near Ash sland (Ile aux Cendres) in the Town of Noyan, Quebec. The Richelieu River, in turn, flows northerly for approximately 40 miles before emptying into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel, Quebec.
The following pages describe the seven Corps' navigation projects on the Vermont side of Lake Champlain. Many of these projects date back to the 19th century and cost an aggregate $1.59 million to construct. Construction of all projects built on Lake Champlain was overseen by the Corps' North Atlantic Division. Depths given for channels and basins are those at low tide.
Information on the five Corps' projects built on the New York side of Lake Champlain can be found in the booklet, "Water Resources Development in New York," published by the Corps' New York District; or from their website: http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/Missions/CivilWorks/ProjectsinVT.aspx